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Antibiotic resistance and resistance transfer in gram-negative bacilli isolated from burns.

Elizabeth Ann Roe

Antibiotic resistance and resistance transfer in gram-negative bacilli isolated from burns.

by Elizabeth Ann Roe

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Published by University ofBirmingham in Birmingham .
Written in English


Edition Notes

Thesis (Ph.D.) - Univ. of Birmingham, Dept of Virrology.

ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL20283017M

Background & Aims: Antimicrobial resistance among bacterial pathogens is a worldwide problem. The selection of initial treatment is made on an empiric basis and susceptibility testing is important to modify empirical therapy, especially for treatment of common bacterial pathogens. The aim of the present study was to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of gram negative pathogens Cited by: 1. the three most frequently isolated Gram-negative bacilli which were resistant to tetracycline, kana-mycin, carbenicillin, Transfer of antibiotic resistance between Ps. aeruginosa, E. coli and other gram-negative bacilli in , 1, Sykes, R. B., andRichmond, Cited by:

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR or AR) is the ability of a microbe to resist the effects of medication that once could successfully treat the microbe. The term antibiotic resistance (AR or ABR) is a subset of AMR, as it applies only to bacteria becoming resistant to antibiotics. Resistant microbes are more difficult to treat, requiring alternative medications or higher doses of .   The non-glucose-fermenting Gram-negative bacilli Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii are increasingly acquiring carbapenem resistance. Given their intrinsic antibiotic resistance, this can cause extremely difficult-to-treat infections. Additionally, resistance gene transfer can occur between Gram-negative species, regardless of their Cited by:

Escherichia coli was the most frequently isolated Gram-negative organism (%). The highest rate of resistance in Gram-negative isolates was seen in the intensive care unit, with Acinetobacter spp. as the most resistant organisms. Gentamicin was the most effective antibiotic against E. coli and all other isolates,Cited by: 7.   Europe PMC is an archive of life sciences journal literature. Sensitivity tests with 12 antibiotics on 1, strains of Gram-negative bacilli isolated in a burns unit between and showed some important differences from results in similar tests on a series of strains isolated between and


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Antibiotic resistance and resistance transfer in gram-negative bacilli isolated from burns by Elizabeth Ann Roe Download PDF EPUB FB2

The evolution of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria is a complex and longstanding process that has gathered much attention by outpacing the discovery and development of new antibiotics.

Among Gram-negative bacilli, resistance has been progressive and unremitting in Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii. According to the National Healthcare Safety Network, the prevalence of multidrug resistance among gram-negative bacilli (GNB) has been increasing.

1 While the exact definitions for multidrug-resistant (MDR) GNB vary, 2 these organisms are especially concerning since they may be susceptible to only a single antibiotic class. Risk factors for infections with MDR GNB Cited by: 6. The burden of multidrug resistance in Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) now represents a daily issue for the management of antimicrobial therapy in intensive care unit (ICU) patients.

In Enterobacteriaceae, the dramatic increase in the rates of resistance to third-generation cephalosporins mainly results from the spread of plasmid-borne extended-spectrum beta-lactamase Cited by:   Antibiotic resistance profile of identified bacilli.

After identification, the antibiotic susceptibility of all isolates was determined. The results for the antibiotic susceptibility are shown in Table 3 and and4. The seven Gram negative isolates were tested for 19 antibiotics. Many organisms in the rivers had resistance to at least one antibiotic other than ampicillin, and a substantial fraction were able to survive a number of antibiotics.

One gram-negative organism resistant to ciprofloxacin was found in the 3, ampicillin-resistant isolates tested. Antibiotic resistance profile of clinical gram negative bacteria. A total of gram negative bacteria, including Escherichia coli, Enterobactor spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae were collected from Dr.

Essa laboratory and Dr. Ziauddin hospital inin Karachi, Pakistan. Subcommittee of the Ministry of Health™s Antibiotic Resistance Advisory Group. The purpose of the survey was to obtain information on resistance among isolates of Gram-negative bacilli causing significant disease.

The survey was confined to the Enterobacteriaceae, P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter. Recently Gram-negative bacteria with resistance to commonly used antibiotics, including quinolones, colistins (polymyxins), carbapenems, cephalosporins, and other β-lactam antibiotics, have been isolated from humans with increasing frequency.

Other mechanisms of resistance among gram-negative bacteria include enzymatic inactivation of other antibiotics, alteration of the bacterial target of the antibiotic, reduction in the permeability of bacterial cells to the antibiotic, and efflux pumps that actively remove the antibiotic from the bacterial cytoplasm.

19 Like β-lactamases, the genes responsible for these mechanisms may be intrinsic and may be encoded by the bacterial chromosomes Cited by: Gram-negative bacilli in a burns unit 35 Antibiotic sensitivities of isolated Gram-negative bacilli Antibiotic resistance of strains isolated from burns and other sources is shown in Table V.

A higher percentage of resistant organisms was isolated from burns, especially gentamicin-resistant strains, than from other sites; an exception was Cited by: Introduction R-FACTORS determining linked resistance to tetra- cycline, carbenicillin, kanamycin, ampicillin, and cephaloridine (TCKACe) were found in gram- negative bacilli isolated from burns.

The acquisition of R-factors by gram-negative bacilli has reduced the usefulness of antibiotics for the treatment of patients with by: 9. Antibiotic susceptibility profile of bacilli isolated from the skin of healthy humans Article (PDF Available) in Brazilian Journal of Microbiology 46(4) October with 60 Reads.

Similar to other Gram-negative pathogens, P. aeruginosa is able to acquire and transfer antibiotic resistance genes (17, 18). Obviously, increasing antimicrobial resistance rates greatly limit. Therefore, problem of antibiotic resistance (AR) is an ever-increasing menace to mankind (Petri, ).

The cells can also transfer resistant genes such as against gram-negative bacilli. The burden of antimicrobial resistance in Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) is a daily challenge to face for intensive care unit (ICU) physicians.

Indeed, GNB are responsible for 45–70% of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) [], 20–30% of catheter-related bloodstream infections [], and commonly cause other ICU-acquired sepsis such as surgical site or urinary Cited by: [aelig]ruginosa P14/R. Discussion The transfer of antibiotic resistance between Ps.

aeruginosa and other gram-negative bacilli, which Sykes and Richmond 4 and Fullbrook et awl. have demonstrated by in-vitro methods, was found in our studies to occur readily between donor and recipient organisms growing in mixed culture on burns of by:   SUMMARY Antibiotics have always been considered one of the wonder discoveries of the 20th century.

This is true, but the real wonder is the rise of antibiotic resistance in hospitals, communities, and the environment concomitant with their use. The extraordinary genetic capacities of microbes have benefitted from man's overuse of antibiotics to exploit every source of resistance Cited by: 1.

Introduction. Gram-positive cocci still predominate as a cause of nosocomial- and community-acquired infections. Staphylococcus aureus is the most common cause of wound infections, whereas coagulase-negative staphylococci is the most common in nosocomial blood stream infections.

Enterococci has appeared as the second or third most commonly isolated Cited by: Antibiotics, an international, peer-reviewed Open Access journal. Dear Colleagues, Gram-negative bacteria possess an intrinsic resistance to many antimicrobials because of the bacterium's outer-membrane barrier, the presence of multidrug efflux transporters, and endogenous antimicrobial inactivation etc.

The aim of this study was to investigate the antibiotic resistance profile of 58 Gram negative bacilli strains (GNB): 36 non-fermentative GNB (NGNB), including 19 strains of Acinetobacter spp., 11 of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 6 of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and 22 enterobacterial strains (14 strains of KEHSs, 6 belonging to the group Proteus-Providencia and 2 Escherichia coli) isolated Cited by: 4.

Antibiotic resistance has been evaluated among 36 Gram negative and anaerobic bacilli (10 Bacteroides, 11 Prevotella, 7 Porphyromonas and 8 Fusobacterium strains) isolated from clinical cases of caprine and ovine footrot (necrotic pododermatitis).Antibiotic Resistance of Gram Negative Bacteria in Suleja Table 5 shows the antibiotics resistance of gram negative bacteria isolated from General hospital Kontagora.

E. coli was most resistant while Ps. aeruginosa was least resistant to the antibiotics examined while Ps.Transfer of antibiotic resistance. Bacteria can share genes with each other in a process called horizontal gene transfer.

This can occur both between bacteria of the same species and between different species and by several different mechanisms, given the right conditions.